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Handball by Emilio Atiénzar Lara

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Handball is a fast-paced game involving two teams of seven players who pass, throw, catch and dribble a small ball with their hands while trying to score goals. The team with the most goals wins the game. A game consists of two 30-minute halves with a 10-minute half-time break.   Handball is one of the most popular sports in Europe (after soccer) and is one of the fastest growing sports in Northern Asia and Africa. In the Americas it is becoming organized with national and continental championships and in Oceania it is on the cusp of taking off..                                

Why play Handball?
Handball is a popular, spectacular, dynamic and exciting sport. It requires speed, strength, power, stamina, endurance, fitness and above all teamwork. Over 15 million people play the game in approximately 140 countries around the world. It is a wonderful mixture of soccer, basketball and a few water polo tactics thrown in.
Handball players need to be fit and skilled. The intensity of the game and the constant physical challenges will work the muscles, the central nervous system and the whole body. The goalkeepers need to be athletic, flexible, brave and have extremely quick reflexes.
Handball is also a game of tactics, strategies and problem solving. Players must divide their attention to three different tasks: teammates activities, opponents' activities and self-activities. Because of these tasks, Handball can be very beneficial both physically and mentallyHandball is a challenging sport both mentally and physically and this is why it is a fascinating and attractive game! It keeps you fit, healthy. It promotes diverse tactics and strategies. It is a dynamic, fast and fun sport.
There's something in it for everyone!
Ancient forms of handball
      The very fact that man has always been more adept at using his hands than his feet lends credibility to the claim made by famous sports historians that he started playing handball much earlier than, say, football.
    The games that were precursors of handball can only said to be distantly related to it in terms of their structure and rules of play. Nonetheless, the games of "Urania" played by the Ancient Greeks (and described by Homer in the Odyssey) and "Harpaston" played by the Romans (and described by the Roman doctor Claudius Galenus in 130 to 200 A.D.) as well as in the "Fangballspiel" (or 'catch ball game') featured in the songs of the German lyrical poet Walther von der Vogelweide (1170-1230) all contained certain features that can be described as ancient forms of handball.

Modern handball
     Modern handball was first played towards the end of the 19th century. The real impulses emanated from Denmark, Germany and Sweden. The founding fathers of field handball were probably German physical education experts who gained recognition for field handball as a separate sport at the turn of the century, based on the games of "Raffball" ('snatch ball') and "Königsbergerball" (Konrad Koch 1846-1911). In Sweden it was G. Wallström who introduced his country to a certain sport named "handball" in 1910.

Olympic History
    Handball, as an indoor sport was first presented in the Munich 1972 Olympic Games. A competition involving 16 men's teams was staged with Yugoslavia winning the first Olympic gold medal. (2nd Czechoslovakia, 3rd Romania). Women's handball was introduced at the following Olympic Games in Montreal, Canada in 1976. The USSR won the gold medals in the 6-team women's competition. (2nd Germany, 3rd Hungary).


Starting Play : All players begin the game in their own half. The team winning the toss starts the game with a pass from the center line. After the start of play, court players are allowed anywhere on the court except for either goal area.                                               

Scoring: a goal is scored whenever the entire ball passes the goal line between the posts and under the cross bar.

Moving the ball : A player is allowed to run three steps with the ball before it must be bounced, passed or shot. If bounced, a further three steps are allowed but the ball must then be passed or a shot taken at the goal. If a player with the ball is stationary and not dribbling, a three-second rule applies instead of three steps.

Dribbling : Dribbling is permitted. However, as soon as the ball is held with one or both hands, it must be passed after three steps or three seconds.
Playing the ball :Players can throw, punch or hit the ball in any direction using hands, arms, head, back thigh or knee. Contact with the ball below the knee is not permitted (goalkeepers are the exception). Passes back to the goalkeeper inside the goal area are also not allowed.

Substitutes : Substitutes are made at any time and without play being stopped. There is no limit to the number that can be made.

Contact : is limited to the torso only. Arms or legs may not be used to obstruct an opponent. Holding, pushing, hitting, running or jumping into an opponent are all fouls.

Free Throws : Infringements result in a free throw, which is taken from the spot where the foul occurred. Opposition players must be a minimum of 3 meters (1.5m in Mini-Handball) away from the player taking the free throw. All attacking players must be outside the broken line. If the infringement took place between the goal area line and the broken line, the free throw will be taken from the free throw line. In the case of serious infringements or when a goal scoring opportunity is spoiled by an infringement, a penalty shot is given. All other players, except the defending goalkeeper, must be outside the free throw line while the player takes the penalty from the penalty line ( 7 meters ). For rough play, a 2-minute penalty is given. If the same player receives three such suspensions, he/she cannot take further part in the match.
A penalty that deserves a warning consists of knocking the ball from a player’s hand, holding a player and obstructing their play, or pushing. A two-minute penalty can be given for excessive pushing, taunting, or arguing a call. The official may also call a delay of game penalty if a team is stalling or not attacking the net. The game is meant to be fast paced and high scoring, therefore no stalling is permitted (up to the official’s discretion).

The Goal Area : Except for the goalkeeper, the goal area can not be entered by any other player from either side. Goalkeepers can leave this area provided they do not have possession of the ball. Only the goalkeeper is allowed to dive for a ball that is lying or rolling on the ground. Offensive players are permitted to jump in the air over the goalie's area as long as the ball is released prior to landing.
Throw-ins A throw in is awarded when the ball crosses the sideline. The non-offending team throws the ball back into play. The player taking the throw in must place one foot on the sideline. A goal can be scored directly from a throw in.

1.    Six (6) court players and one goalkeeper are on the court for each team.
2.    A player may dribble the ball (although it is discouraged) and is allowed 3 steps before and after the dribble. Only one dribble is allowed per possession.
3.    A player may hold the ball for 3 seconds before passing, shooting, or dribbling. After 3 seconds it is a violation.
4.    Players must only use their hands to pass or shoot the ball. The goalkeeper may use any part of his/her body to block a shot.
5.    Goal Area – this area is reserved for the goalkeeper. No other player (offense or defense) may enter this area.
6.    A player that is fouled inside the offensive zone will be awarded a penalty shot from the 7-meter line. A player that is fouled outside the offensive zone will be awarded a free throw from the point of the foul. The defense cannot guard the fouled player.


 1. Treat everyone fairly within the context of their activity,regardless of    
    gender,place of origin, colour, sexual orientation, religion, political belief or
    economic status.
 2. Treat opponents with respect.
 3. Play by the rules and the spirit of the game.
 4. Exercise self-control at all times.
 5. Be a good team player and show respect to teammates.
 6. Respect the decisions of officials without gesture or argument.
 7. Show good sporting attitude when losing/winning games. Shake hands with 
    the referee's and the opponents after the game.

Choosing the correct shoes for playing handball: It is very important to choose the right training shoes as they ensure perfect movement control..  Good handball shoes must have an excellent grip (rubber sole is the best).The shoes needs to be light weight and of course needs to give good ventilation for the foot.
Handball size :The circumference of the Handball is different for men and women. The general rule is that the player should be able to hold the ball with one hand. Men: 58–60cm,Women: 54–56cm,Children: 47–50cm
Handball Court :A regulation team handball court is 20m x 40m. There are four lines marked on the court, the 6m/goal area line, the 7m/penalty line, the 9m/free throw line, and a center line midway between the two baselines.
Handball Goals :The official size goal for handball is 2 m high and 3m wide. It has a net hung on it in such a way that a ball thrown into the goal will not bounce straight out again. The net is one meter deep at the base of the goal.


Types of Passes
•    Chest, Bounce, and Overhead passes – two hand passes used in basketball
•    One-handed shoulder pass – similar to a baseball throw
•    Shovel pass – an underhand pass used to deliver the ball quickly
•    Roll pass – a pass that is rolled along the floor to avoid the defense
•    Jump pass – a pass completed while jumping around or above the defending player
•    Hand-off pass – a pass that is like a hand-off in football

Types of Shots on goal

•    Jump Shot – the most popular shot because a player may jump from beyond the goal area and is allowed to land inside the goal area, as long as he/she throws the ball before landing
•    Lob Shot – used when the goalkeeper is out away from the goal
•    Set Shot – a simple throw from a standing position. Set shots are also used for all penalty shots.
•    Penalty shot – one on one with the goalkeeper. The shooter must stand with both feet behind the penalty line and keep one foot stationary during the shot.

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